1930s: Australia, 1910-20
It is still a common misconception that surfing in Australia began in 1914-15, with the visit of Duke Kahanamoku to New South Wales; with the surfing demonstrations he gave at that time. In fact,
’s surfing roots go back as far as the late 1800s, before legal rights to swim in the open sea had even been won. This was because “In Australia,” emphasized the Australian authors of Surfing Subcultures, “the origins of surfing were based on body surfing rather than on traditional board riding... the early Australian settlers – mainly of English origin – found no native surfing tradition to encourage or restrict either body or craft-based surfing, as was the case in Australia .” Hawaii
Australian surfing’s Polynesian connection came in the form of Alick Wickham and Tommy Tana. In the 1890s, Alick Wickham, a native of the
Around the same time another South Sea Islander, Tommy Tana – a youth employed as a houseboy in the Manly district – was body surfing at the beach there. Tana hailed from the Pacific
After the turn of the century, Alick Wickham shaped the first surfboard in
When more novice swimmers and non-swimmers started ocean bathing off unsupervised beaches, accidents became numerous and soon raised public alarm. At
By 1909, the newly formed Australian Surf Life Saving Association published that there were eleven clubs active in
The first Surf Carnival was held on January 25th 1908 at
That same year, Alexander Hume Ford – the man who more than anyone helped publicize surfing at
Many writers – including myself, once upon a time – have written that before Duke Kahanamoku came to
While assisting with the 1908 trade agreements between Hawai‘i and Australia and New Zealand, Alexander Hume Ford introduced surfing to Australian Percy Hunter, the head of the New South Wales Immigration and Tourism Bureau. Two years later, when Ford visited
During this time, amongst some surf lifesavers, there was an understanding of what surfboards were. It was noted that “Fred Notting painted a brace of slabs and named them Honolulu Queen and Fiji Flyer; gay they were to look at but they were not surfboards.”
In 1912, well-known Australian swimmer, local businessman and politician Charles D. Paterson, of Manly Beach, Sydney, had brought a solid, heavy redwood board back with him from Hawai‘i. He and some local bodysurfers tried to ride it, but with little success. “When he and his mates couldn’t figure out how to ride it,” Duke biographer Sandra Hall wrote, “his wife used it as an ironing board.”
Yet, Patterson and his mates were not the only ones who had attempted surfboard riding or were surfing prior to Duke’s visit. Early in 1912, the Daily Telegraph reported on the second Freshwater Life Saving Carnival held on January 26th. In the account of the day’s events, there was mention of surfboard riding: “A clever exhibition of surf board shooting was given by Mr. Walker, of the Manly Seagulls Surf Club. With his Hawaiian surf board he drew much applause for his clever feats, coming in on the breaker standing balanced on his feet or his head.” Whether the board
We do know for sure that following the arrival of C.D. Paterson’s board at Manly in 1912, a small group – the Walker Brothers, Steve McKelvey, Jack Reynolds, Fred Notting, Basil Kirke, Jack Reynolds, Norman Roberts, Geoff Wyld, Tom Walker, Claude West (when aged 13) and Miss Esma Amor – all attempted surf riding on replica boards. Some of these tried surfing before and some after Duke’s visit. Made from Californian redwood by Les Hinds, a local builder from
So, yes, surfing on wooden boards – or their facsimile – had already begun by the time Duke Kahanamoku first visited
Duke Kahanamoku's tandem partner while in
Circa 1915, seventeen year old Grace Wootton (nee Smith) was encouraged to try (prone) boarding at
Following Duke’s surfing demonstrations in
Australia (and ), many boards were made based on his handcrafted design. New Zealand
Circa 1915, Collaroy Surf Life Saving Club member, Alf “Weary” Lee saw Duke Kahanamoku’s Dee Why demonstration and built his own board according to Duke’s design. Since the board was stored in the club house, it was available for younger club members to have a go of it.
Duke’s most stoked pupil, Claude West, was initially at the Freshwater Club but later moved to Manly. He became
In 1919 Louis Whyte, a
John Ralston, a
Some of the Surf Life Saving clubs became centers of board riding, clubhouses becoming storage facilities for boards, in addition to being places where club members could gather and hang out.
With the end of World War I in 1918, military technological developments like industrial glues and varnishes were applied to marine craft, including surfboard construction.
In the early years of its establishment, board riding was given little support by the Surf Life Surfing Association. Competitions as part of carnivals were judged subjectively. For example, a headstand scored maximum points although it had little to do with how well one rode the wave. With a growing emphasis on rescue techniques, it was paddling skill that became the focus when it came to surfboard use. Record keeping for surfing events was an after thought. Often, board events were either not held or not recorded, and since the ASLA was in its infancy and basically a
Amazingly, it was not until 1946 that the first officially-recognized Australian Longboard Championship took place. However, the first credited Australian surfing magazine was published in 1917. This was Manly Surf Club’s The Surf, which first published on December 1, 1917. It ran for twenty editions, until April 27, 1918.
 Surfing Subcultures, “Origins and Development of Pacific Seaboard Surfing,” chapter 3, p. 34.
 Surfing Subcultures, p. 34.
 Young, 1983, 1987, pp. 35-36.
, 1965, p. 4. Bloomfield
, 1965, p. 10. Bloomfield
Australia Through American Eyes,” The Red Funnel, , June 1, 1908, p. 468. Quoted in Thoms, p. 14. Dunedin
 Noble, Valerie. Hawaii Prophet, 1980, pp. 57-58. See also Mid-Pacific Magazine, January 1911, “Skiing in
,” by Percy Hunter. It may be that Hunter was the one that noted the presence of boards in Australia in 1910, not Ford. Australia
 Warshaw, 1997, p.18.
 Hall, Sandra Kimberly. “Duke Down Uner,” Aloha Magazine, Volume 19, Number 11, November 1994, p. 57.
 Daily Telegraph, January 27, 1912, p. 21. Quotes in Pods For Primates.
 Harris, p. 55.
 Wells, Lana. Sunny Memories – Australians at the
, ©1982, pages 157-158. 1982. Greenhouse Publications Pty Ltd., Seaside 3126. Hardcover, 184 pages, black and white photographs, Chronology of Events. Geoff Cater wrote: “Expansive overview of Australian beach culture and history, starting with James Cook's description of 'indians' (aborigines) bathing in 1776. Surfcraft in Chapter 12. 'Riding the Waves' is interesting; particularly the sections on Isabel Letham (sic) page 156, Grace Smith Wootton (1915 Victorian surfer) page 157 and C.J. ('Snow') McAllister page 159; but does not progress much past 1970. The Chronology is useful, but note the 1964 World Contest at Manly is listed as 1960. Photographic Highlights: “Andrew 'Boy' Charlton and Snow McAllister, both wearing V shorts over their bathing suits, with their boards at Manly, 1926” pages 88-89, ‘St Kilda Life Saving Club Member with a surfboard ... Manly’ circa 1929, page 151, ‘Grace Wootton Smith’ page 157. See image of Grace Smith Wooton and Win Harrison, 385 - 387 Bridge Road, Richmond, Victoria , circa 1916, Wells page 157.” Point Lonsdale, Victoria
 Harris, Reg. S. Heroes of the Surf – The History of Manly Life Saving Club 1911-1961, ©1961, p. 55. Published by Manly Life Saving Club, NSW. Printed by Publicity Press Ltd. Hard cover, 100 pages, 132 black and white photographs, extensive membership/results lists. Geoff Cater writes of this resource: “Well written, extensively researched and comprehensive account of the Manly Club, with background dating back to 1880, this book is also a photograghic feast. Special mention: Manly's Top Boardmen 1939-40, page Fifty-four -reproduced on Pods for Primates index page as Photograph #1. 'The Birth of the Board' pages Fifty-two to Fitfty-six. 'Surfboats' pages Forty-three to Forty-nine. Queenscliffe 'Bombora' page Ninety. Now a significant historical record.”
 Brawley, Sean. Vigilant and Victorious - A Community History of the Collaroy Surf Life Saving Club 1911 – 1995, ©1995, pages 33-34. Collaroy Surf Life Saving Club Inc.,
PO Box 18 2097. Cllaroy Beach . Hard cover, 410 pages, black and white photographs, Notes, Office Bearers, Bronze Medallions, Subject Index, Name Index. Geoff Cater wrote: “Highly detailed account of one of Australia ’s first Surf Life Saving clubs and the growth of its community. Although boardriding plays only a small part of such an expansive work, the significant details recorded here are not available from any other source.” Sydney
 Maxwell, C. Bede. Surf : Australians Against the Sea, ©1949, page 237. Angus and Robertson,
. Hard cover, 302 pages, 22 black and white plates. Geoff Cater wrote: “Beautifully written and expertly researched, this book is ‘a wave-to-wave description of surf lifesaving from its inception’ (to 1949), Adrian Curlewis, in the Foreward. An essential resource for this period, much of the text has been reproduced in subsequent works. Surfcaft are detailed in Chapter Three, Mountaineering in Boats, and Chapter Seven, Surfboards and Surf Skis. Special mention: The evolution of the surfboard, from old style ‘solid’ to modern ‘hollow’. Maroubra board-men Bruce Devlin, Frank Adler, and Vince Mulcay.” Sydney
 Harvey, Richard. A Surfing History of
Queensland - Gold Coast - The Sunshine Coast - , ©1983, p. 5. Olympic Productions and Publications Pty Ltd, Gold Coast Byron Bay . 1983, Soft Cover, pages, color photographs, black and white photographs, numerous colour/two tone advertisements. Geoff Cater wrote: “A rich store of rare and interesting photographs accompanied by an informative but disjointed text. A case of poor editing, the text jumps across time and geography without any recourse to headings or chapters, except for The Islands (Stradbroke) by Greg Curtis, page 78. Queensland
 Thoms, Albie, ©2000,
4567. Hard cover, extensive black and white as well as color photographs, posters, flyers, record sleeves, documents, filmography; 192 pages. Geoff Cater wrote: “This is an outstanding book, exhibiting extensive personal knowledge, rigorous research and a committed love of the subject. Even if the core of the book (the actual film references) was omitted, the additional notes on surfing history, surfboard design, music, magazines, fashion and culture (both surf culture and general observations) themselves would be a significant achievement. An essential text.” Noosa Heads, Queensland
 Maxwell, page 238.
 Brawley, page 57.